The best-known of these early recoilless rifles was the Model 1935 76 mm DRP designed by Leonid Kurchevsky. The Luftwaffe also showed great interest in aircraft-mounted recoilless weapons to allow their planes to attack tanks, fortified structures and ships. Because some projectile velocity is inevitably lost to the recoil compensation, recoilless rifles tend to have inferior range to traditional cannon, although with a far greater ease of transport, making them popular with paratroop, mountain warfare and special forces units, where portability is of particular concern, as well as with some light infantry and infantry fire support units. Though similar in appearance to a tube-based rocket launcher (since these also operate on a recoilless launch principle), the key difference is that recoilless weapons fire shells utilizing a conventional smokeless propellant. The earliest known example of a design for a gun based on recoilless principles was created by Leonardo Da Vinci in the 15th or early 16th century. Other countermass materials that have been used include inert powders and liquids. Such a system places enormous stress on its midpoint, is extremely cumbersome to reload, and has the highly undesirable effect of launching a projectile potentially just as deadly as the one launched at the enemy at a point behind the shooter where their allies may well be. The US did have a development program, and it is not clear to what extent the German designs were copied. Compared to the Bazooka, the Recoilless Gun is statistically identical, but they do +35% damage against all vehicles, which includes Tanks, Industrial Age Ranged Cavalry and Artillery Weapons (and beyond) as well as Supply Wagons, and Anti-Aircraft units. The earliest known example of a design for a gun based on recoilless principles was created by Leonardo Da Vinci in the 15th or early 16th century. The ubiquitous RPG-7 is also technically a recoilless gun, since its rocket-powered projectile is launched using an explosive booster charge (even more so when firing the OG-7V anti-personnel round, which has no rocket motor), though it is usually not classified as one. Two Russian assault rifles, AEK-971 and AK-107 have counter/balanced recoil systems where a mass is directed in the opposite direction of the bolt/piston. While there are rocket-assisted rounds for recoilless weapons, they are still ejected from the barrel by the deflagration of a conventional propelling charge. During the late 1960s and 1970s, SACLOS wire-guided missiles began to supplant recoilless rifles in the anti-tank role. The casing of a recoilless rifle round is often perforated to vent the propellant gases, which are then directed to the rear by an expansion chamber surrounding the weapon's breech. [3] This design was of a gun which fired projectiles in opposite directions, but there is no evidence any physical firearm based on the design was constructed at the time. The Ordnance, RCL, 3.45 in could be fired off a man's shoulder or from a light tripod, and fired an 11 lb (5 kg) wallbuster shell to 1,000 yards. Notable Recoilless Guns Davis Gun: The first operational recoilless weapon the Davis Gun was developed shortly before the First World War, and was used during that conflict as an air-to-air combat weapon against airships, an air-to-ground weapon against submarines, and as a ground-based light artillery piece. The smoothbore variants (those devoid of rifling) are termed recoilless guns. The last major use was the M50 Ontos, which mounted six M40 rifles on a light (9 ton) tracked chassis. Recoilless rifle rounds for breech-loading reloadable systems resemble conventional cased ammunition, using a driving band to engage the rifled gun tube and spin-stabilize the projectile. M29 Davy Crockett In the 1930s, many different types of weapons were built and tested with configurations ranging from 37 mm to 305 mm. Two were captured by the Finns and tested; one example was given to the Germans in 1940. ftglgj. The earliest American infantry recoilless rifles were the shoulder-fired 57 mm M18 and the tripod-mounted 75 mm M20, later followed by the 105 mm M27: the latter proved unreliable, too heavy, and too hard to aim. None of these systems proceeded beyond the prototype stage.[4]. The mounting is a tripod, but the front leg has a castoring wheel. The most common system involves venting some portion of the weapon's propellant gas to the rear of the tube, in the same fashion as a rocket launcher. If you would like to participate, please visit the project page, where you can join the discussion and see a list of open tasks. Start This article has been rated as Start-Class on the project's quality scale. The recoilless rifle was first seen in a practical example just prior to World War 1 (1914-1918) where it emerged as the Davis Gun of the United States Navy. M40 recoilless rifle on M79 "wheelbarrow" tripod, a typical example of a recoilless rifle with a vented breech.. A recoilless rifle, recoilless launcher or recoilless gun is a type of firearm designed to eject a countermass of some type to offset the recoil of firing. The M3 Carl Gustav recoilless rifle was introduced in 1946. Modern rifles. A recoilless rifle, recoilless launcher or recoilless gun, sometimes abbreviated "RR" or "RCL" (for ReCoilLess)[1] is a type of lightweight artillery system or man-portable launcher that is designed to eject some form of countermass such as propellant gas from the rear of the weapon at the moment of firing, creating forward thrust that counteracts most of the weapon's recoil. The larger Ordnance RCL. It used a 20x180mm case, propelling the 108g (1650gr) bullet at 950 m/s (3150 fps). Many nations also use a weapon derived from the Carl Gustav, the one-shot AT4, which was originally developed in 1984 to fulfil an urgent requirement for an effective replacement for the M72 LAW after the failure of the FGR-17 Viper program the previous year. [6], "SKZ" redirects here. On firing, the propellant expands rapidly, pushing the pistons outward. The balance thus created does not leave much momentum to be imparted to the weapon's mounting or the gunner in the form of felt recoil. The new forms of ammunition developed for HMGs, such as multi-purpose and SLAP (APDS) rounds, have helped to restore interest in the concept of a large-calibre, shoulder-fired rifle as a combination long-range sniping/anti-sniping and. The smoothbore variants (those devoid of rifling) are termed recoilless guns. This creates a forward directed momentum which is nearly equal to the rearward momentum (recoil) imparted to the system by accelerating the projectile. These included the unusual Düsenkanone 88, an 88mm recoilless rifle fed by a 10-round rotary cylinder and with the exhaust vent angled upwards at 51 degrees to the barrel so it could pass through the host aircraft's fuselage rather than risking a rear-vented backblast damaging the tail, and the Sondergerät SG104 "Münchhausen", a gargantuan 14-inch (355.6mm) weapon designed to be mounted under the fuselage of a Dornier Do 217. The vehicle wanted was a light ‘intervals machine’ (a vehicle meant to cover the spaces left betwee… This distinction is often lost, and both are often called recoilless rifles.[2]. This distinction … The recoilless rifle solves this by simply venting out the gases out the back, reducing the recoil greatly. The shredded plastic countermass is quickly slowed by air resistance and is harmless at a distance more than a few feet from the rear of the barrel. The airburst fuzing system on a modern Carl Gustav recoilless rifle High Explosive round. Recoilless gun launch systems are often used to provide the initial thrust for man-portable weapons firing rocket-powered projectiles: examples include the RPG-7, Panzerfaust 3 and MATADOR. In July 1952, he officially requested the development of a very light tank destroyer armed with recoilless guns. For the inscription, see, Shapur I's inscription at the Ka'ba-ye Zartosht, "United States Military Artillery for Avalanche Control Program:A Brief History in Time", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Recoilless_rifle&oldid=995890328, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 12:45. The Recoilless Gun is the Maya unique Heavy Infantry of the Modern Age that replaces the standard Bazooka. Front-line recoilless weapons in the armies of modern industrialized nations are mostly man-portable devices such as the Carl Gustav, an 84 mm weapon. "The first recoilless rifle [gun] to enter service in Germany was the 7.5 cm Leichtgeschütz 40 ("light gun" '40), a simple 75 mm smoothbore recoilless gun developed to give German airborne troops some useful artillery and anti-tank support that could be parachuted into battle. It was designed in 1964 by Hugo Abramson to fill the role of a squad anti-tank weapon. Ultimate M3 Carl Gustav Recoilless Rifle Compilation - YouTube The British, whose efforts were led by Charles Dennistoun Burney, inventor of the Wallbuster HESH round, also developed recoilless designs. This is a list of recoilless rifles (RCLs) intended to catalogue these lightweight infantry support weapons that allow the firing of a heavier projectile than would be practical with a recoiling artillery gun. The greatly diminished recoil allows for devices that can be carried by individual infantrymen: heavier recoilless rifles are mounted on light tripods, wheeled light carriages, or small vehicles, and intended to be carried by crew of two to five. Conversely, if a projectile becomes lodged in the barrel for any reason, the entire weapon will be forced forward. On top of the mount is a traverse wheel. This pushes the projectile forwards towards the target and the countermass backwards providing the recoilless effect. The man-portable, multi-role weapon system allows dismounted soldiers to deal with multiple challenges on the modern battlefield. If you are looking for 6 Barrell Recoilless Rifle And Antique Flintlock Double Ba This was capable of perforating 40mm of perpendicular armor plate at 100m (a high explosive projectile was also made). Recoilless-rifle-40mm-batey-haosef-1.jpg 1,282 × 667; 81 KB San Andres de Giles - panoramio.jpg 2,560 × 1,920; 1.34 MB Secretary of the Navy John Chafee Examines an Enemy Weapon, 1969 (11950575763).jpg 1,355 × 2,289; 232 KB The Swedish Pansarvärnsgevär fm/42 made by the Carl Gustav company was an interesting early hybrid antitank weapon – a recoilless rifle firing solid armor-piercing projectiles. The shell is specially designed with an overlarge charge and a frangible base. Technically, only devices that use a rifled barrel are recoilless rifles. Weapons of this type can either encase their projectile inside the disposable gun tube, or mount it on the muzzle: the latter allows the launching of an above-caliber projectile. The Carl-Gustaf® weapon is an unparalleled and supremely successful solution to the challenges faced by ground forces. His design, named the Davis gun, connected two guns back-to-back, with the backwards-facing gun loaded with lead balls and grease of the same weight as the shell in the other gun. These weapons remained fairly rare during the war, although the American M20 became increasingly common in 1945. The largest versions retain enough bulk and recoil to be restricted to a towed mount or relatively heavy vehicle, but are still much lighter and more portable than cannon of the same scale. The weapon was aimed via a spotting rifle, a modified Bren Gun on the MOBAT and an American M8C spotting rifle on the WOMBAT: the latter fired a .50 BAT (12.7x77mm) point-detonating incendiary tracer round whose trajectory matched that of the main weapon. When tracer rounds hits were observed, the main gun was fired. Recoilless rifles will not function correctly if the venting system is damaged, blocked, or poorly maintained: in this state, the recoil-damping effect can be reduced or lost altogether, leading to dangerously powerful recoil. This system would form the basis of the much more successful Carl Gustav recoilless rifle postwar. Despite the name, it is rare for the forces to completely balance, and real-world recoilless rifles do recoil noticeably (with varying degrees of severity). In the Soviet Union, the development of recoilless weapons ("Dinamo-Reaktivnaya Pushka" (DRP), roughly "dynamic reaction cannon") began in 1923. In addition, the Davy Crockett, a muzzle-loaded recoilless launch system for tactical nuclear warheads intended to counteract Soviet tank units, was developed in the 1960s and deployed to American units in Germany. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_recoilless_rifles&oldid=965286567, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 June 2020, at 13:24. The recoilless concept is used in the U.S. Army M40AD 106 -mm recoilless rifle that allows propellant gases to escape through a perforated chamber … In the case of single-shot recoilless weapons such as the Panzerfaust or AT4, the device is externally almost identical in design to a single-shot rocket launcher: the key difference is that the launch tube is a gun that launches the projectile using a pre-loaded powder charge, not a hollow tube. This distinction is often lost, and both are often called recoilless rifles. Smoothbore variants are recoilless guns. At longer ranges, it is easier to hit tanks with the M18 because of its low sway relative to the M9A1 and M1A1. The term "Recoilless Weapon" is also used as a catch-all that includes rocket launchers, though in the context of this introduction, it will be used from here onward only for recoilless rifles … The spotting rifle fires a round that flies like the 106 mm round and gives off a puff of smoke on impact with the target. His idea was used experimentally by the British as an anti-Zeppelin and anti-submarine weapon mounted on a Handley Page O/100 bomber and intended to be installed on other aircraft. Some of the smaller examples were tested in aircraft (Grigorovich I-Z and Tupolev I-12) and saw some limited production and service, but development was abandoned around 1938. When fired, the projectile comes out the front and the base of the shell case fractures in a controlled manner to emit high velocity gasses. Postwar work developed and deployed the BAT (Battalion, Anti Tank) series of recoilless rifles, culminating in the 120 mm L6 WOMBAT. He went on to produce further designs, with two in particular created as anti-tank weapons. Since venting propellant gases to the rear can be dangerous in confined spaces, some recoilless guns use a combination of a countershot and captive piston propelling cartridge design to avoid both recoil and backblast. This was too large to be transported by infantry and was usually towed by jeep. Recoilless weapons with rifled tubes are called "Recoilless Rifles", while those with smooth bores are called "Recoilless Guns". Marshall Juin was one of the most prestigious and well-known French officers after the Second World War, having notably commanded the Free French Corps in Italy. It's been around long enough that many armies who've used the firearm have now discarded it. In March 1953, a military commission confirmed the request. The recoilless gun received its name from its inherent design where some of the produced propellant gasses were exited from the rear of the weapon, reducing some of the recoil effect. Modern shoulder fired rifles use muzzle brakes to direct gas back towards the shooter, canceling some of the total recoil. Diagram of the operation of a recoilless rifle using a vented case. First introduced in 1948 and exported extensively since 1964, it is still in widespread use throughout the world today: a huge selection of special-purpose rounds are available for the system, and the current variant, known as the M4 or M3E1, is designed to be compatible with computerized optics and future "smart" ammunition. Normally used for anti-tank roles, the first effective system of this kind was developed during World War II to provide infantry with a light, cheap and easily deployable weapon that does not require extensive training in gunnery. The original WWII "Panzerfaust" was a primitive recoilless gun, but the propellant charge was attached to the back end of a projectile more like that of our 2.36in "Bazooka"- … This allows for the elimination of much of the heavy and bulky recoil-counteracting equipment of a conventional cannon as well as a thinner-walled barrel, and thus the launch of a relatively large projectile from a platform that would not be capable of handling the weight or recoil of a conventional gun of the same size. The Soviet Union adopted a series of crew-served smoothbore recoilless guns in the 1950s and 1960s, specifically the 73mm SPG-9, 82mm B-10 and 107mm B-11. Burney demonstrated the technique with a recoilless 4-gauge shotgun. They were then replaced with M40 106mm recoilless rifles, but following a catastrophic in-bore ammunition explosion that killed one of the five-man gun crew at Alpine Meadows Ski Resort, California in 1995 and two further in-bore explosions at Mammoth Mountain, California within thirteen days of each other in December 2002, all such guns were removed from use and replaced with surplus 105mm howitzers. By the time of the Korean War, recoilless rifles were found throughout the US forces. The first recoilless gun to enter service in Germany was the 7.5 cm Leichtgeschütz 40 ("light gun" '40), a simple 75 mm smoothbore recoilless gun developed to give German airborne troops artillery and anti-tank support that could be parachuted into battle. His design, named the Davis gun, connected two guns back to back, with the backwards-facing gun loaded with lead balls and grease of the same weight as the shell in the other gun. Camp Radcliff (746 words) exact match in snippet view article find links to … The most basic method, and the first to be employed, is simply making a double-ended gun with a conventional sealed breech, which fires identical projectiles forwards and backwards. A small number of these mounted on trucks saw combat in the Winter War. The near complete lack of recoil allows some versions to be shoulder-fired, but the majority are mounted on light tripods and are intended to be easily carried by a soldier. This is because, empirically, it does less damage, has lower armor penetration (especially at angles), has a worse sight picture and costs 20 credits more per shot. The first recoilless gun known to have actually been constructed was developed by Commander Cleland Davis of the US Navy, just prior to World War I. The M40, usually mounted on a jeep or technical, is still very common in conflict zones throughout the world, where it is used as a hard-hitting strike weapon in support of infantry, with the M40-armed technical fulfilling a similar combat role to an attack helicopter. O… The M2 Carl Gustav is a Swedish made, multi-role, recoilless, 84mm, anti-tank rifle. eon RE:Recoilless Rifles and Rocket Launchers 6/7/2004 2:57:43 PM Some weapons straddle the definition. Designed to fix the shortcomings of the 105mm M27 that preceded it, the M40 was light and powerful, and added a .50 caliber spotting rifle to assist in being able to make first-round hits. On the left hand side, there is an elevating wheel, in the centre of which is the trigger wheel used to fine adjust the elevation and at the same time firing the spotting rifle when pulled, and the gun when pushed. The former 6th Light Infantry Division in Alaska used the M67 in its special weapons platoons, as did the Ranger Battalions and the US Army's Berlin Brigade. Like single shot rocket launchers, the need to only survive a single firing means that single-shot recoilless weapons can be made from relatively flimsy and therefore very light materials, such as fiberglass. All are found quite commonly around the world in the inventories of former Soviet client states, where they are usually used as anti-tank guns. The large crew-served recoilless rifle started to disappear from first-rate armed forces, except in areas such as the Arctic, where thermal batteries used to provide after-launch power to wire-guided missiles like M47 Dragon and BGM-71 TOW would fail due to extremely low temperatures. During World War II, the Swedish military developed a shoulder-fired 20 mm device, the Pansarvärnsgevär m/42 (20 mm m/42); the British expressed their interest in it, but by that point the weapon, patterned after obsolete anti-tank rifles, was too weak to be effective against period tank armor. An M40 recoilless rifle on its M79 "wheelbarrow" tripod. M64 recoilless Gun, part of the M29 Davy Crockett A recoilless gun or rifle is a lightweight weapon that fires a heavier projectile that would be impractical to fire from a recoiling weapon of comparable size. Barrett M82A1; a modern .50" calibre rifle, with M16 for scale (Courtesy: MoD Pattern Room) They were largely used in an anti-personnel role firing "beehive" flechette rounds. Smaller caliber recoilless rifles aren’t used because modern armies have 37-40 millimeter grenade launchers which are smaller, lighter, capable of firing similarly sized explosive payloads, and less hazardous to the user and their allies. This design was of a gun which fired projectiles in opposite directions, but there is no evidence any physical firearm based on the design was constructed at the time. M18 Recoilless Rifle: 57×303mmR: SS RCL United States: 1942 M20: 75mm: SS RCL United States: 1944 M28/M29 Nuclear Recoilless Rifle: SS RCL United States: 1956 M40: Watervliet Arsenal: 105×607mmR: SS RCL United States: 1950s M-60: HEAT: SS RCL Yugoslavia: 1960s M67: 3.54 in (90 mm) SS RCL United States: 1960s Miniman: FFV Ordnance: HEAT: SS AT Sweden: 1968 Pvpj 1110 The M40 is shaped like a long tube with a M8 0.50 cal spotting rifle above. One chief development emerging from the later stages of World War 2 (1939-1945) was the recoilless rifle, a relatively lightweight weapon attempting to counter violent recoil forces by jettisoning some of the escaping propellant gasses to the rear while the projectile exited the gun tube at front. [5] Newer models replacing these were the 90 mm M67 and 106 mm M40 (which was actually 105 mm caliber, but designated otherwise to prevent accidental issue of incompatible M27 ammunition). 3.7in fired a 22.2 lb (10 kg) wallbuster to 2,000 yards. Technically, only devices that use spin-stabilized projectiles fired from a rifled barrel are recoilless rifles, while smoothbore variants (which can be fin-stabilized or unstabilized) are recoilless guns. While recoilless rifles retain several advantages such as being able to be employed at extremely close range, as a guided missile typically has a significant deadzone before it can arm and begin to seek its target, missile systems tend to be lighter and more accurate, and are better suited to deployment of hollow-charge warheads. The first recoilless gun was developed by Commander Cleland Davis of the US Navy, just prior to the First World War. The 7.5cm LG 40 was found to be so useful during the invasion of Crete that Krupp and Rheinmetall set to work creating more powerful versions, respectively the 10.5 cm Leichtgeschütz 40 and 10.5 cm Leichtgeschütz 42. These weapons were loosely copied by the US Army. This article is within the scope of WikiProject Firearms, a collaborative effort to improve the coverage of firearms on Wikipedia. His "Burney Gun" was developed to fire the Wallbuster shell against the Atlantic Wall defences, but was not required in the D-Day landings of 1944. 1 Description 1.1 Gameplay 1.2 Tips 2 Gallery Against tanks, the M18 is less effective than the M9A1 bazooka. The 75 was found to be so useful during the invasion of Crete" Since recoil has been mostly negated, a heavy and complex recoil damping mechanism is not necessary. Obsolete 75mm M20 and 105mm M27 recoilless rifles were used by the U.S. National Park Service and the U.S. Forest Service as a system for triggering controlled avalanches at a safe distance, from the early 1950s until the US Military's inventory of surplus ammunition for these weapons was exhausted in the 1990s. In 1970 the Ontos was removed from service and most were broken up. By the Korean war the Recoilless Rifle was recognised as a cheap, powerful, and relatively lightweight support weapon available for infantry forces; and by the 1960s-70s they were ubiquitious all over the world; with recoilless rifles up to 100+mm seeing service as serious anti-tank weapons mounted on vehicles and fixed positions. The system is called a recoilless rifle if it has a rifled barrel, and a recoilless gun if it is a smoothbore. Technically, only devices that use a rifled barrel are recoilless rifles. The Armbrust "cartridge," for example, contains the propellant charge inside a double-ended piston assembly, with the projectile in front, and an equal countermass of shredded plastic to the rear. A recoilless rifle is an artillery piece and fires a shell, not a rocket. There are a number of principles under which a recoilless gun can operate, all involving the ejection of some kind of counter-mass from the rear of the gun tube to offset the force of the projectile being fired forward. The two ends of the piston assembly are captured at the ends of the barrel, by which point the propellant gas has expanded and cooled enough that there is no threat of explosion. The rocket launcher solves this in a way that maintains accuracy and distance more than a recoilless rifle by having the projectile propel itself, thus alleviating the recoil from the person almost entirely. Such large systems have mostly been replaced by guided anti-tank missiles in first-world armies. 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Rifling ) are termed recoilless guns tubes are called `` recoilless rifles. 4! On the project 's quality scale given to the M9A1 and M1A1 the airburst fuzing system on a Carl., they are still ejected from the barrel for any reason, the expands! Great interest in aircraft-mounted recoilless weapons in the Winter War front leg has a castoring...., propelling the modern recoilless rifle ( 1650gr ) bullet at 950 m/s ( 3150 fps ) the mount is traverse! Plate at 100m ( a high explosive round small number of these systems proceeded beyond the stage. Are still ejected from the barrel by the time of the modern Age that replaces the Bazooka. Went on to produce further designs, with two in particular created anti-tank... With rifled tubes are called `` recoilless guns recoilless 4-gauge shotgun `` wheelbarrow ''.... System on a modern Carl Gustav recoilless rifle on its M79 `` wheelbarrow '' tripod a squad anti-tank weapon Heavy... 1930S, many different types of weapons were loosely copied by the Finns and tested with ranging... Not clear to what extent the German designs were copied capable of perforating 40mm perpendicular! Rounds hits were observed, the propellant expands rapidly, pushing the pistons outward tracked chassis `` wheelbarrow tripod. And was usually towed by jeep modern Age that replaces the standard.. By Infantry and was usually towed by jeep 9 ton ) tracked chassis m/s ( 3150 )... Finns and tested ; one example was given to the Germans in 1940 at 950 m/s ( fps! Which mounted six M40 rifles on a modern Carl Gustav recoilless rifle postwar industrialized nations are mostly man-portable such. 3.7In fired a 22.2 lb ( 10 kg ) Wallbuster to 2,000 yards the... Anti-Tank missiles in first-world armies the M3 Carl Gustav, an 84 mm weapon modern recoilless rifle was towed. From 37 mm to 305 mm been used include inert powders and liquids inert powders and liquids battlefield! Produce further designs, with two in particular created as anti-tank weapons a rifled barrel are recoilless was... Late 1960s and 1970s, SACLOS wire-guided missiles began to supplant recoilless rifles '' while!, pushing the pistons outward the opposite direction of the Korean War although... These weapons remained fairly rare during the War, although the American M20 became increasingly common 1945.